Evaluation of Vascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

Silvya Grace B1,*, Soma Sundaram I2

1PhD Scholar, VELS University, Pallavarum, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Professor, VELS University, Pallavarum, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract: Background: Now a day, globally diabetes is one of the most common chronic non-communicable diseases globally. In our study to assess, the clinical characteristics and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the complications among diabetic patients in different age groups. Methodology: It’s a Prospective-observational study, carried out in 9 months at patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Guntur. We enrolled age group between 30- 80 years patients. Results: Out of 215 patients, males were 122 and females were 93. Above 50% of patients were diagnosed within the age group of 51-65 years. About 61% of patients were having overweight based on BMI ranges and about 63% of patients were at high risk of HbA1C i.e., >6%. The mean age was found to be 51-65(50.97%). Out of all comorbidities, it was found that hypertension 112 (52.09%) was high. The complications associated with diabetes found in the present study were microvascular complications which include microvascular complications, nephropathy (n=63) was high followed by neuropathy (n=53); retinopathy (n=31), and males (n=108) were more prone than females (n=80). Drug therapy was monotherapy 106(49.30%) and dual therapy 29 (13.48%). Triple therapy 7 (3.25%) usage was less when compared to mono and dual therapy. Conclusion: Based on our study interpretation, the complications of DM are commonly seen in those are having uncontrolled glucose levels. Among microvascular complications, nephropathy was most commonly observed, followed by neuropathy also. Enhancing level of HbA1c and BMI was found to be a more significant correlation with neuropathy in most of the individuals.

Keywords:Diabetes mellitus, Coronary artery diseases, Macrovascular, microvascular, nephropathy.


  1. Lakhtakia R. The history of diabetes mellitus. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2013; 13: 368.
  2. Shetty P. Public health: India's diabetes time bomb. Nature 2012; 485: S14-6.
  3. Bertoldi AD, Kanavos P, França GV, Carraro A, Tejada CA, Hallal PC, et al. Epidemiology, management, complications and costs associated with type 2 diabetes in Brazil: a comprehensive literature review. Glob Health 2013; 9:1-2.
  4. Deshpande AD, Harris-Hayes M, Schootman M. Epidemiology of diabetes and diabetes-related complications. Phys Ther 2008; 88: 1254-64.
  5. Whiting DR, Guariguata L, Weil C, Shaw J. IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011; 94: 311-21.
  6. Ali A, Iqbal F, Taj A, Iqbal Z, Amin MJ, Iqbal QZ. Prevalence of microvascular complications in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. PaK J Med Sci 2013; 29: 899.
  7. Zaker A, Swamy TN. A Prospective Study To Investigate Diabetes mellitus Related Complications In Patients Of A South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital, Baptist Hospital, Bangalore. International Journal of Innovative Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2016; 4: 1133-9.
  8. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 1047–53.
  9. Dreschfeld J. The Bradshawe Lecture on Diabetic Coma, Br Med J 1886; 2: 358–63.
  10. Papatheodorou K, Banach M, Bekiari E, Rizzo M, Edmonds M. Complications of Diabetes 2017. J Diabetes Res 2018; 1-4.
  11. Worku D, Hamza L, Woldemichael K. Patterns of diabetic complications at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci 2010; 20: 33–9.
  12. Khazai MH, Khazai B, Zargaran Z, Moosavi Z, Zand FK. Diabetic complications and risk factors in recently diagnosed type II diabetes: a case-control study. ARYA Atherosclerosis 2010; 2.
  13. Fowler MJ. Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Clinical diabetes 2011; 29:116-22.
  14. Forbes JM, Cooper ME. Mechanisms of diabetic complications. Physiological reviews 2013; 93:137-88.
  15. Unnikrishnan R, Anjana RM, Mohan V. Diabetes mellitus and its complications in India. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2016; 12: 357-70.
  16. Mantro O, Mohanan J. A study of clinical profile and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care center. Int J Adv Med 2019; 6: 279-83.
  17. Zuhara NVF, Banu AT, Chokli N. Gender wise prevalence of comorbidities and medication adherence among type 2 diabetics in Malappuram. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2019; 10: 4787-93.
  18. Agrawal N, Agrawal MK, Kumari T, Kumar S. Association of body mass index and blood glucose level in Jharkhand. International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research 2017; 4: 1633-36.
  19. Haghighatpanah M, Thunga G, Khare S, Mallayasamy S. Correlation of glycosylated hemoglobin levels with fasting and postprandial glucose in South Indian Type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016; 8: 285-8.
  20. Young EE, Okaforc N, Okwara CC. Diabetes mellitus, associated co-morbidities, and complications - A review, Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 2016; 7: 047-55.
  21. Jelinek HF, Osman WM, Khandoker AH, Khalaf K, Lee S, Almahmeed W, et al. Clinical profiles, comorbidities and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients from United Arab Emirates. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2017; 5: 1-9.
  22. Al-Maskari F, El-Sadig M. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional survey, BMC Ophthalmol 2007; 7: 1-8.
  23. Pradeepa R, Mohan V. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its complications in India and economic costs to the nation. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017; 71: 816-24.
  24. Li J, Chattopadhyay K, Xu M, Chen Y, Hu F, Chu J, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of vascular complications among inpatients with type 2 diabetes: A retrospective database study at a tertiary care department, Ningbo, China. PLoS ONE 2020; 15: 2-14.
  25. Raveendra babu K, Deepika Reddy B, Bheemamma P, Vamshi Krishna E, Chinna Eswaraiah M., Prevalence of microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus in tertiary care hospital. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2020; 11: 2049-55.
  26. Abdi SH, Churi S, Ravi Kumar YS. Study of drug utilization pattern of antihyperglycemic agents in a South Indian tertiary care teaching hospital. Indian J Pharmacol 2012; 44: 210-4.
  27. Khan M, Ullah R, Khan A, Khan S, Riaz M. Assessment of Prescriptions in the Endocrinology Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan Using World Health Organization Guidelines. Advances in preventive medicine 2020.
  28. Alex SM, Sreelekshmi BS, Smitha S, Jiji KN, Menon AS, Uma Devi P. Drug utilization pattern of anti-diabetic drugs among diabetic outpatients in a tertiary care hospital. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015; 8: 144-6.